In a recently released paper, two researchers offer a new explanation of how the universe
rapidly expanded after it was formed: our universe is located inside a black hole.
January 20, 2016
By assuming the universe is located in a black hole, Nikodem J. Poplawski, a senior
lecturer at the University of New Haven, and Shantanu Desai, a research fellow at
the Ludwig-Maximilians University in Germany, say that the early expansion of the
universe (known as inflation) can be explained simply and remain consistent with observations
by those who study the cosmos.
Their paper, "Non-parametric Reconstruction of An Inflaton Potential from Einstein-Cartan-Sciama-Kibble
Gravity with Particle Production," can be found at arXiv (http://arxiv.org/abs/1510.08834), an archive for scholarly research hosted at the Cornell University Library. The
paper expands on earlier research by Poplawski, who theorized that our universe may
exist within a black hole, or rather, on the other side of its boundary known as an
Poplawski, an expert on black holes, was featured in a Forbes magazine story last
year that speculated on who might be the next Einstein.A theoretical physicist, he
was identified as one of five scientists in the world most like Einstein.
"We studied the dynamics of a universe formed in a black hole using the Einstein-Cartan-Sciama-Kibble
theory of gravity which extends general relativity by including the spin of matter
and torsion of space-time," the pair states in their paper.
They found that "… a universe in a black hole with spin, torsion, and particle production
provides a simple and natural mechanism for inflation which does not require hypothetical
fields and is consistent with the Planck 2015 observations."
The theory of inflation was developed to explain the expansion of space and the formation
of such things as galaxies. Planck was a space exploration mission launched in 2009
to observe the first light of the universe. Observations from that mission were released
earlier this year.
It is commonly accepted, Poplawski, said, that the universe began when a high concentration
of matter exploded and expanded—the so-called Big Bang. But there are issues with
the Big Bang model. It doesn’t answer such questions as: What started the Big Bang?
What is the source of the mysterious dark energy that is apparently causing the universe
to speed up its expansion?
"It has been known since the 1970s that the standard hot Big Bang model suffers from
the horizon, flatness, and homogeneity problems and there must be another dynamical
mechanism prior to Big Bang nucleosynthesis (the formation of atoms more complex than
the hydrogen atom) to alleviate these problems," they write.
Their work demonstrates that torsion not only solves these problems but also manifests
itself at extremely high densities as a repulsive force, which avoids the formation
of singularities (points in space where physics breaks down) and replaces the Big
Bang by a "Big Bounce" in a black hole.
About the University of New Haven
The University of New Haven is a private, top-tier comprehensive institution recognized
as a national leader in experiential education. Founded in 1920, the university enrolls
approximately 1,800 graduate students and more than 4,600 undergraduates.