Spano, R. & Bolland, J. (2013). Disentangling the effects of violent victimization and violent behavior on gun carrying for minority inner city youth living in extreme poverty. Crime & Delinquency. 59, 191-213.
Spano, R. (2012). First time gun carrying and the primary prevention of youth gun
violence for African American youth living in extreme poverty. Aggression & Violent
Behavior. 17, 83-88.
Spano, R., Pridemore, W.A., & Bolland, J. (2012). Specifying the role of exposure to violence and violent behavior on initiation of gun carrying: A longitudinal test of three models of youth gun carrying. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 27, 158-176.
Spano, R., Rivera, C., Vazsonyi, A., & Bolland, J. (2012). Specifying the interrelationship between exposure to violence and parental monitoring for younger versus older adolescents: A five year longitudinal test. American Journal of Community Psychology 49, 127-141.
Spano, R., Rivera, C., & Bolland, J. (2011). Does parenting shield youth from exposure to violence during adolescence? A five year longitudinal test in a high poverty sample of minority youth. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 26, 930-949.
Spano, R., Rivera, C., & Bolland, J. (2010). Are chronic exposure to violence and chronic violent behavior closely related developmental processes during adolescence? Criminal Justice & Behavior. 37, 1160-1179.
Spano, R. & Freilich, J. D. (2009). An assessment of the empirical validity and conceptualization of individual level multivariate studies of lifestyle/routine activities theory published from 1995 to 2005. Journal of Criminal Justice. 37, 305-314.
Spano, R., Freilich, J. D. & Bolland, J. (2008). Gang membership, gun carrying, and employment: Applying routine activities theory to explain violent victimization among inner city youth living in extreme poverty. Justice Quarterly. 25, 381-410.
Spano, R. (2006). Observer behavior as a potential source of reactivity: describing and quantifying observer effects in a large-scale observational study of police. Sociological Methods & Research. 34, 521-553.
(Reprinted in Wogt, W.P. (ed.) (2010). Data Collection. SAGE Benchmarks in Social Research Methods Series. London: Sage Publications.)
Dr. Spano received his Ph.D. from SUNY Albany in 2002. His primary research interests are the primary prevention of youth gun violence, exposure to violence and adolescent development for at-risk youth, the developmental consequences of violent behavior and violent victimization, policing, and field research methodology.